Pioglitazone is the preferred drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


What is Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of sugar, fat and protein metabolism caused by a defect in insulin secretion or a decrease in the sensitivity of body tissues and cells to insulin. It is characterized by high blood glucose and is often characterized by excessive urination, drinking, eating and wasting, i.e. "three more and one less".
November 14 is World Diabetes Day, according to the Chinese Diabetes Association survey found that the incidence of diabetes in China is as high as 9.7%, the latest data show that the number of diabetes in the country as high as 114 million. Diabetic patients oral medication glycemic control rate of 71.65%.
The danger of diabetes
Diabetes has become the third chronic disease that seriously endangers human health after tumor and cardiovascular disease. The harm of diabetes is multifaceted, mainly harming the heart, brain, kidney, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, skin and so on. The harm of diabetes is reflected in the form of complications.
The main complications are:
1. Cardiovascular complications. It is mainly manifested by atherosclerosis of the aorta, coronary arteries, cerebral arteries, as well as microangiopathy with extensive endothelial hyperplasia of small blood vessels and thickening of capillary basement membranes. Due to elevated blood glucose, erythrocyte membrane and hemoglobin glycation, resulting in vascular endothelial cell ischemia, hypoxia and damage, resulting in the formation of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperviscosity, hypertension, resulting in diabetes mellitus cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality rate is rising linearly. 
2. Renal complications. Due to hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, glomerular microcirculatory filtration pressure is abnormally elevated, which promotes the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by proteinuria and edema in the early stage, and renal failure in the late stage, which is the most important cause of death in type II diabetes mellitus.
3. Peripheral vascular complications. The harm of diabetes mellitus to peripheral blood vessels is mainly dominated by lower extremity atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients due to elevated blood glucose, causing peripheral vascular disease, resulting in reduced sensitivity of local tissues to injury factors and insufficient blood perfusion, in the external factors of damage to local tissues or local infections are more likely to occur in the general population of local tissue ulcers, the most common part of this danger is the foot, known as the diabetic foot. The most common site of this danger is the foot, which is called diabetic foot. Diabetic foot clinically manifests as pain and ulceration of the lower limbs, and the serious lack of blood supply can lead to necrosis of the limbs. In this case, amputation is inevitable.
4. Eye complications. Common eye complications include diabetic retinopathy, complicated by cataract and glaucoma. In mild cases, vision loss and in severe cases, blindness can be caused. The blindness rate of diabetic patients is 25 times higher than that of normal people, which is the most important cause of blindness in the world.
5. Nervous system complications. Peripheral neuropathy and plant neuropathy are the most common. Clinical manifestations of peripheral neuropathy are numbness, burning sensation or cold tingling at the end of the limbs, and in severe cases, tossing and turning and sleepless nights. Vegetative neuropathy manifests as abnormal sweating (no sweating, little sweating, or excessive sweating), abdominal distension, constipation, or diarrhea, hypotension in the standing position, tachycardia or bradycardia, and urinary incontinence or dysuria. Of all the organic diseases causing impotence, diabetes is the most common cause, which is also a major danger of diabetes.
6. Infection complications. Commonly, there are recurrent skin infections, which can sometimes lead to sepsis; vulvar itching caused by mycosis vaginalis, onychomycosis, tinea pedis, urinary tract infections (nephritis and cystitis), and the incidence of tuberculosis is five times higher than that of normal people.
7. Metabolic complications. The harm of diabetes to the material metabolism is mainly due to the relative or absolute lack of insulin in diabetic patients, causing serious disorders of glucose metabolism, accelerated decomposition of fats and proteins, ketone bodies are produced in large quantities, the tissue is not oxidized, the lungs and kidneys are not regulated in time to discharge ketone bodies, the blood ketone concentration is significantly higher, the emergence of ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma, with a very high case fatality rate, requiring emergency treatment.
Diabetes is not scary, it is worth being alert to the danger of complications due to long-term hyperglycemia. Patients must adhere to long-term treatment and control under the guidance of the doctor, regularly check the indicators, especially focusing on blood glucose indicators, and cultivate healthy living habits, you can delay and reduce the occurrence of diabetes harm, patients can maintain a normal work and life, and maintain a higher quality of life, and live a long life as normal people.
Treatment of diabetes (step therapy)
● Step therapy
Diabetes is treated by effectively controlling the blood glucose index and at the same time improving the body's immunity so that complications can be prevented more effectively, symptoms can be better eliminated, and the quality of life can be improved. Depending on your condition, diet therapy, exercise therapy, medication (including insulin), and other treatments are used in order, which is called "step therapy".
1. Diet therapy
Diet therapy is the basic treatment for diabetes, which is the foundation of other treatments and is applicable to diabetic patients at all stages. Most of the light-type patients and the beginning of the disease can receive good results with dietary therapy and exercise therapy, medium and heavy patients, but also in the dietary therapy and exercise therapy on the basis of a reasonable increase in drug therapy. Only with good dietary control can hypoglycemic drugs play a better therapeutic effect.
The basic method of dietary therapy is to control the diet reasonably, take in appropriate calories and maintain an ideal body weight. Balance the proportion of nutrients, carbohydrate 50-65%, protein 15-20%, 1 gram per kilogram of body weight in adults, high quality protein accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the intake, fat 20-35%, cholesterol <300mg. attention. Vitamin and trace element supplementation. Pay attention to a light diet, avoiding high-sugar and high-fat foods. Determine the proportion of food in each meal: three meals per day: 1/5, 2/5, 2/5; five meals per day: 1/7, 2/7, 1/7, 2/7, 1/7. Avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia.
2、Diet therapy﹢Exercise therapy
On the basis of diet therapy, add exercise therapy, exercise therapy can promote metabolism, enhance the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. The main exercise program is fast walking or jogging, general diabetic patients should be 1-2 hours after the meal fast walking or jogging exercise, especially in the breakfast 1 hour exercise is good, the amount of exercise should be from small to large, the distance can be decided according to the state of my own, generally 30-60 minutes is appropriate. In addition, swimming, tai chi and squatting, sit-ups, fitness equipment exercise and other sports.
The following patients should not do exercise therapy:
(1) Those with severe acute complications, such as ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, hypoglycemic coma and so on. Especially when the patient has an acute infection (such as pyelonephritis, chemodense skin infection, etc.) and the body has a fever, exercise should be stopped.
(2) Those with severe chronic complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, uremia, hemorrhage, cataract, etc.
(3) severe diabetics, for such patients, such as in the absence of insulin injection or not before the use of drugs, exercise may occur ketoacidosis, insulin injection patients in the strongest role of insulin (such as 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.), or injected with insulin without eating before, exercise is prone to hypoglycemia.
3. Diet therapy" exercise therapy" drug therapy
As the disease progresses, if diet therapy + exercise therapy is not effective in controlling blood glucose, medication should be added on top of diet therapy + exercise therapy. Chemotherapy (western medicine) as an effective drug, should be used as the basic drug and preferred drug, in order to control the blood glucose index more effectively.
There are several major types of oral chemical hypoglycemic agents
★Sulfonylurea pro-insulin secretion drugs: glibenclamide, glimepiride, gliclazide,,, 
★Non-sulfonylurea insulinotropic drugs: Repaglinide, Naglinide, Miglinide 
★Biguanides: Metformin, Gemfibrozil 
★a-glucosidase inhibitors: acarbose, glycopyrrolate 
★Insulin sensitizers (thiazolidinediones): troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone 
★Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1): exenatide, liraglutide
★Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4): selegiline, vilagliptin
 
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride Tablets
(State Drug License and Character H20070229, National Class B Medical Insurance, 685 base drug)
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Product Features: 
1、Directly hit insulin resistance
Activate body tissues, enhance the sensitivity of peripheral tissues and fat cells to insulin, reduce insulin resistance; inhibit hepatic glucose output enzyme to reduce and increase hepatic uptake of glucose and synthesis of hepatic glycogen, to achieve the effect of lowering glucose.
2、Triple protection of pancreatic β-cells
(1) Reduce the toxic effect of glucose on β-cells by lowering blood glucose;
(2) Reduce the toxic effect of lipids on β-cells by reducing the level of triglycerides and free fatty acids;
(3) Direct protective effect on β-cells.
(4) Lowering glucose and lipids, reducing LDL (low-density lipoprotein) increasing HDL (high-density lipoprotein) in the body, lowering blood pressure, protecting kidneys, preventing and treating atherosclerosis, and lowering urinary protein.
Product Performance: 
This product is suitable for type 2 diabetes mellitus, directly targeting insulin resistance, lowering blood glucose, slowing down the progress of diabetes; correcting the abnormalities of lipid metabolism, lowering complications and protecting damaged organs. Easy to take and safe to dispense. One or two tablets a day, not affected by eating; with insulin, sulfonylurea, biguanide can be used in combination. Not easy to occur hypoglycemia, no hepatotoxicity. Single drug or combined with insulin can make HbAIC significantly decreased.

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Pioglitazone is the preferred drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of sugar, fat and protein metabolism caused by a defect in insulin secretion or a decrease in the sensitivity of body tissues and cells to insulin. It is characterized by high blood glucose and is often characterized by excessive urination, drinking, eating and wasting, i.e. "three more and one less".


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